System and instrument validation was performed based on dextran (GPC Standard 80, Pharmacosmos, Denmark). Dynamic light scattering measurements Hydrodynamic radii (R h) of PEG molecules were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) (Nanosizer ZS, Malvern Instruments, Worcestershire, UK) at room temperature (25°C). All PEG samples were dissolved in 81.5 mM NaCl solution to 5 mg/mL concentrations. All PEG solutions were then ultrasonicated FGFR inhibitor for 10 min and filtered through

0.22-μm nylon filters. The zeta potentials of the AuNPs were also measured by DLS at room temperature (25°C). Data analysis OriginPro 8.0 software (OriginLab, Northampton, MA, USA) was employed to perform data processing. Each sample measurement was repeated in triplicate, and the data were presented as the mean ± standard deviation. Results and discussion Colloidal nanoparticles in a dispersion medium always show Brownian motion and hence undergo frequent collisions with each other. The stability of colloids is thus determined by the interaction between the nanoparticles during such collisions. There are two basic interactions: one being attractive and the other repulsive.

When attraction dominates, the nanoparticles will aggregate with each other, and finally, the entire dispersion may coalesce. Conversely, when repulsion dominates, the system will be stable and remain in a dispersed state. This idea was originally proposed by Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek and is therefore referred as selleck inhibitor Idoxuridine the

DLVO theory [13, 21]. The DLVO theory assumes that the behavior of colloidal nanoparticles can be simplified by the interaction potential between two neighboring nanoparticles [13, 21]. We therefore used the DLVO theory to study the effects of PEG MW on the stability of the coated AuNPs. The three major interaction energies at work in this system are electrostatic (U elec) and steric (U steric) repulsions and van der Waals (U vdW) attraction. These are assumed to be additive so that the total interparticle interaction energy (U total) becomes [22] (1) We estimated the interaction energies for two neighboring spherical AuNPs coated by PEG adlayer as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 Schematic of two neighboring AuNPs coated with adsorbed PEG. R AuNPs is the radius of the AuNPs, L is the nanoparticle center-to-center separation distance, H is the separation distance between the nanoparticle surface (H = L − 2R AuNPs), and t is the thickness of the adsorbed PEG layer. The weight average molecular weights (M w) and the R h of the PEG samples determined from the above experiments are shown in Table 1. The polydispersity indexes (M w/M n) of all PEG samples were measured to be about 1.05.